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NBAA State Aviation Tax Report
The NBAA State Aviation Tax Report is designed to function as an introduction to the vast body of law which constitutes the rules and regulations governing the taxation of general aviation among the fifty states. This report is developed and maintained by the volunteer Members of the NBAA Tax Committee.
For an overview of the information provided in the Report, review the introduction to NBAA's State Aviation Tax Report.
- New Hampshire
- New Jersey
- New Mexico
- New York
- North Carolina
- North Dakota
- Rhode Island
- South Carolina
- South Dakota
- West Virginia
This report is being provided to NBAA Members for their general information and should not be construed as legal or tax advice on any specific facts or circumstances. You are urged to consult your attorney, accountant or other advisor concerning your own situation and for any specific legal or tax questions you may have.
The web links within the report provide access the version of the statutes and/or regulations that are available on the State's website, which may not be the official versions. It is important that you consult the official versions of the statutes and regulations, relevant case law and rulings before engaging in any aircraft transaction.
State Tax News
- Texas GA Caucus Calls for Maintenance Tax Reform
- March 7, 2017
With its reputation as a pro-growth, low-tax state, Texas should be a favorable place to work on aircraft. But the 6.25 percent sales tax on parts drives significant business out-of-state, resulting in a loss of economic activity that the Texas Legislative General Aviation Caucus is hoping to reverse. "This legislation will encourage suppliers, manufacturers and other small businesses that serve the general aviation industry to remain and expand in Texas," said state Rep. Dwayne Bohac. Learn more.
- Around the Country, NBAA, Local Groups Push for Pro-Growth Aviation Tax Policy
- Jan. 18, 2017
As the legislative calendar begins in statehouses across the U.S., NBAA and regional groups are building support for tax reforms to promote growth in business aviation and the associated support organizations it relies on. "We have efforts going on in about a dozen states to seek new, common-sense tax policies that foster the growth of business aviation," said Scott O’Brien, NBAA’s senior manager of finance and tax policy. This year, local groups are getting more proactive than ever, seizing upon a shift in the political current. Years of advocacy, with NBAA and local groups working together, saved many of those exemptions. Lawmakers came to realize that aircraft are mobile assets, and many now are proposing exemptions in even more states. Read more about efforts to push for pro-growth aviation tax policies.
- As California Case Shows, For-Sale Aircraft May Be Exempt from Property Tax
- Dec. 20, 2016
Like many states, California assesses annual property tax on the value of aircraft. Also, like most states, it’s tax code provides a “business inventory exemption” for property that is held for sale. Generally, this exemption has been applied to aircraft dealers of light, piston-powered aircraft. In a recent Ventura County case however, NBAA Tax Committee Member George Rice successfully argued that signing an aircraft listing agreement could allow the aircraft to qualify as business inventory during the time it was for sale. “With this decision, we now know for certain that owners of aircraft who have decided to sell, but who may not complete the sale in the current calendar year, can avoid the next year’s property tax bill, if they do it right,” said Rice. Learn more.
- Florida NBAA Members Encouraged to Stay Engaged on State Aviation Tax Reform
- Oct. 24, 2016
NBAA, the Florida Aviation Business Association and other stakeholders continue to advocate for legislation that would exempt aircraft sales and leases from the state's 6 percent sales tax. "Sales tax reform is an important step to making Florida more competitive with neighboring states and supporting its thriving general aviation industry," said NBAA’s Senior Manager of Finance and Tax Policy Scott O’Brien. "Exempting aircraft transactions from sales and use tax has had a positive economic impact in other states, including increased consumer spending and new high-paying jobs." According to a recent study, Florida could gain almost 300 high-paying jobs and millions of dollars of economic growth by reducing or eliminating the sales tax on aircraft. Read more about proposed tax reform in Florida.
- State Tax Planning Continues After Aircraft Acquisition
- Oct. 17, 2016
BMost aircraft buyers carefully plan their transaction, including sales and use tax implications, but after the closing, owners can be surprised to learn they owe additional state taxes. NBAA has guidance to help members successfully manage state tax issues during the ownership cycle, in the September/October issue of Business Aviation Insider..
- NBAA Responds to State Tax Challenges On Both Sides of the U.S.
- June 30, 2016
Business aircraft owners and operators in New Jersey and Nevada should join with NBAA in opposing potentially onerous proposed state tax changes. New Jersey lawmakers had been considering a significant hike on the jet fuel tax; a Nevada proposal would have negated a key tax policy designed to encourage aircraft owners to locate in the state. "The New Jersey and Nevada proposed state tax changes are strong evidence of why the industry needs to be aware of state issues and register opposition when onerous changes are proposed," said Scott O'Brien, NBAA's senior manager of tax and finance. Read more about the proposed changes.
- Arizona Governor Signs Charter Tax Exemption Into Law
- May 27, 2016
Arizona Gov. Doug Ducey recently signed House Bill 2533 into law, exempting aircraft used for on-demand passenger flights from the state’s transaction privilege tax and use tax. Previously, state officials interpreted Arizona law in such a way that only aircraft used in scheduled Part 121 operations were exempt from these taxes. “This is a victory for business aviation in Arizona,” said Stacy Howard, NBAA Western Regional Representative. “Those who are engaged in using aircraft for hire now have the exemption they were intended to have all along.” Learn more.
- Idaho Solidifies Aircraft Parts Sales Tax Exemption
- March 18, 2016
Idaho Gov. Butch Otter has signed into law HB 361, which makes permanent a sales tax exemption on aircraft parts for out of state aircraft that was first put in place in 2012. “NBAA applauds passage of HB 361 as it extends the exemption on aircraft parts which has succeeded in helping the state's 30 repair stations continue their growth,” said Scott O’Brien, NBAA senior manager of finance and tax policy. Read more about the Idaho tax exemption.
- NBAA Supports Aviation Tax Exemption in Maryland
- Feb. 5, 2016
NBAA strongly supports a Maryland bill that would exempt aircraft repair and upgrade parts from sales tax, saying that without the repair exemption, the state is at a competitive disadvantage to other neighboring states. "The exemption proposed in SB14 is sound tax policy that will lead to increased aircraft repair business by exempting from the state sales and use tax parts and equipment used to repair, maintain or upgrade aircraft," said NBAA’s Senior Manager of Finance and Tax Policy, Scott O'Brien. "Since aircraft are highly mobile, the fact that Maryland does not offer a similar exemption makes it less competitive." Read more about NBAA's support of the tax exemption bill.
- Business Aviation Sees Immediate Benefits of Tax Reform in New York
- Dec. 23, 2015
An NBAA member company reports it is already benefitting from New York's new sales-and-use tax exemption on general aviation aircraft and related equipment, a measure that NBAA and other aviation groups pushed for to lower the cost of doing business in the state. Sheltair Aviation said the tax exemption is helping to clear the way for a new multi-million-dollar FBO complex at Republic Airport (FRG) in East Farmingdale, NY, about 35 miles east of Manhattan. "If state officials were hoping to see immediate results from passing the tax exemption legislation, they need look no further than state-owned Republic Airport," said Warren Kroeppel, Sheltair's chief operating officer. Learn more about how tax reform in New York is benefitting NBAA members.
- Florida Could Gain Jobs, Revenue Through Elimination of Sales Tax on Aircraft
- Nov. 30, 2015
Florida could gain almost 300 high-paying jobs and millions of dollars in economic growth by reducing or altogether eliminating the sales tax on aircraft, according to a new study commissioned by the Florida Aviation Business Association. The study estimates elimination of the sales tax would result in the sale of 354 additional aircraft worth a total of $246 million each year. Florida is among 15 states that tax the sale of airplanes and rotorcraft at the rate of 6 percent. Read more about the study.
- NBAA Applauds Complete Allocation of Aviation Tax Revenue to Airport Projects in Washington State
- Aug. 7, 2015
Before Washington state Gov. Jay Inslee signed the Transportation Appropriations Bill, only 10 percent of aircraft excise taxes were deposited in the state’s aeronautics account that funds its airport aid grant program. With a broad spectrum of support – from a coalition of aviation stakeholders, including NBAA –lawmakers championed legislative language that reallocated 100 percent of aircraft excise tax revenue to aviation without raising the tax itself. “NBAA applauds everyone who supported this effort to reinvest all of the revenue generated by aviation taxes into Washington’s airports,” said Kristi Ivey, NBAA’s Northwest regional representative. Read more about Washington state's Transportation Appropriations Bill.
- Oregon Dedicates $20 Million to Aviation Infrastructure
- July 27, 2015
Oregon has dedicated $20 million to aviation infrastructure needs over the next six years, with the passage of House Bill 2075, which was signed by Gov. Kate Brown on July 20. Funding for the program comes from a fuel tax increase, with the avgas tax now at 13 cents per gallon, and the jet fuel tax increasing from 1 to 5 cents per gallon. "Business aircraft operators in Oregon should soon start seeing the benefits of a dedicated aviation fund,: said NBAA Northwest Regional Representative Kristi Ivey. "Support for the state's aviation infrastructure and aviation economic development is a positive development for all aviation interests in Oregon." Read more about the Oregon bill.
- NBAA-Led Effort in Texas Levels State Tax Playing Field for Business Aircraft Owners
- June 18, 2015
Recent success on aviation tax matters in state legislatures across the country have given aircraft owners and operators something to celebrate. "Sound tax policies that will benefit aviation businesses and aircraft owners have been passed by legislatures in a number of states, including Texas, Nevada, South Carolina and New York," said Scott O'Brien, NBAA’s senior manager of finance and tax policy. "By implementing favorable new tax statutes, these states have shown that they understand the importance of general aviation to their economies." NBAA, working together with local and regional groups, as well as other organizations, played a significant role in the passage of the aviation-friendly legislation. Read more about recent state tax successes.
- NBAA-Led Effort in Texas Levels State Tax Playing Field for Business Aircraft Owners
- June 17, 2015
Texas Gov. Greg Abbott has signed into law Senate Bill 1396, which provides significant sales and use-tax reforms for general aviation aircraft based in or visiting Texas. After identifying the need to pursue reforms, the National Business Aviation Association (NBAA) and a coalition of stakeholders worked with state legislators and the Texas comptroller of public accounts to emphasize the need for legislation that provides clear guidance and objective standards in the Texas tax code for application of sales and use tax to aircraft owners and operators. Read more about aviation tax reform in Texas.
- Nevada Passes Partial Tax Abatement on Aircraft Sales and Services
- June 15, 2015
A three-year effort by Nevada aviation groups and industry stakeholders, led by NBAA, culminated recently in Gov. Brian Sandoval signing into law Assembly Bill 161 abating certain tax liabilities for those who own, operate, manufacture and service general aviation aircraft in Nevada. All states bordering Nevada offer varying levels of tax exemptions regarding the sale, operation and repair of GA aircraft. Lack of a similar policy left the state at a competitive disadvantage for attracting new aviation-related businesses, and customers from outside Nevada for existing aviation companies. Read more about the new Nevada tax law.
- South Carolina Adopts General Aviation Maintenance Sales Tax Exemption
- June 4, 2015
South Carolina has taken an important step in attracting business aviation activity to the state with passage of a sales tax exemption on parts and supplies used in repairing or reconditioning aircraft. In a May letter sent to every South Carolina senator on the Committee on Finance, NBAA noted that the lack of a sales tax exemption on parts and supplies for general aviation aircraft maintenance made South Carolina less competitive than surrounding states, such as Arkansas, Georgia and Ohio, which already have such statutes in place. Gov. Nikki Haley is expected to sign the bill in the coming days. Read more about the South Carolina bill.
- Washington State Issues Final 'Tax Avoidance' Rule
- April 20, 2015
Washington state's Department of Revenue issued a final rule that provides guidelines and safe harbor provisions for certain aircraft leasing structures and transactions involving use of the sale-for-resale tax exemption. In 2010, the Washington state legislature passed a bill that labeled many business aircraft leasing structures as "tax avoidance" arrangements, which could be subject to increased taxes and penalties. Learn more about the tax avoidance rule.
- In Texas, NBAA Advocates in Defense of Workable Aircraft Leasing Structures
- April 2, 2015
Earlier this year, a coalition of operators led by NBAA began advocating for legislation in Texas to preserve the long-accepted ‘sale for resale’ exemption for aircraft leasing, and other exemptions. Several other industry coalitions supported additional bills, setting the stage for negotiations between the comptroller’s office, the state legislature and the aviation community. The 2015 session of the Texas legislature ends this summer, and over the next several months, NBAA, business aircraft operators in Texas, along with several law firms, will work with lawmakers, hoping to finalize the legislation before the session ends. Read more about the proposed legislation.
- Arkansas Passes Flyaway and Maintenance Tax Exemption
- April 2, 2015
To promote the state as a center of aviation and aerospace manufacturing, Arkansas’ legislature recently passed a sales and use-tax exemption for aircraft maintenance, as well as a flyaway exemption for aircraft sales. The bill, which was signed into law by Gov. Asa Hutchinson, was sponsored by Rep. Joe Jett, himself a pilot and the co-chair of the Aviation Caucus in the state's General Assembly. “There’s an aerospace industry here in Arkansas that is first-class, but needs to be promoted beyond the state,” said Jett. “We’ve got to do anything we can to make Arkansas more friendly to business aviation.” Read more about the Arkansas bill.
- NBAA Applauds Passage of Aviation Tax Reform in New York
- April 1, 2015
NBAA welcomes passage of significant aviation tax reform that will bring jobs and economic development to New York state. Through the budget process, the state Senate and Assembly passed a measure that will exempt general aviation aircraft from the state's sales and use tax. The budget agreement will exempt from New York sales and use tax, sales of general aviation aircraft, and machinery or equipment that is installed on those aircraft beginning on Sept. 1, 2015. The measure defines a general aviation aircraft as any aircraft used in civil aviation that is not a commercial aircraft. Learn more about the New York Budget.
- NBAA Files Comments Opposing Changes to Aircraft-Leasing Rules in Texas
- Dec. 4, 2014
NBAA has filed comments against proposed tax rules issued by the Texas Comptroller that would significantly change the standards for creating aircraft ownership and operating structures. Under the proposal, a new rule would be created to determine when operators could qualify for the "sale for resale" exemption through aircraft leasing. "There are many legitimate FAA regulatory and risk management reasons why aircraft owners enter into leases, and this proposed rule overlooks those factors," said Scott O'Brien, NBAA senior manager for tax policy. Read more about proposed changes to aircraft leasing rules in Texas.
- Know the Facts About Business Aircraft Taxes in Texas
- Aug. 7, 2014
State and local taxing authorities across Texas have focused on the aviation industry as a potential source of tax revenue. The state's aviation industry generates billions of dollars annually as measured by gross domestic product – a record $8.4 billion in 2011 – and ranks first in the nation for total direct air transportation sector jobs, with more than 153,000. Further, according to FAA records, more than 29,000 aircraft are registered in Texas, second only to California. Nathan S. Haley, an attorney in the aviation practice group at Dallas-based Shackelford, Melton, McKinley & Norton, LLP, provides an overview of the tax issues that Texas-based business aircraft owners need to be aware of. Read more.
- Nevada Supreme Court Rules on Interstate Commerce Exemption
- May 9, 2014
A recently published Nevada Supreme Court opinion clarifies the requirements for the application to aircraft of the interstate commerce exemption from Nevada sales and use tax. In Harrah's Operating Company, Inc. v. Nevada Department of Taxation, the court considered a sales tax refund claim made by Harrah's. Chris Younger, a partner with GKG Law who focuses his practice on business aircraft transactions as well as issues relating to federal and state taxation and regulation of business aircraft ownership and operations, wrote about the decision. Read more.
- Podcast: Improved NBAA State Aviation Tax Report Now Available
- August 20, 2012
The NBAA State Aviation Tax Report has been revamped to make it easier for Members to compare tax rates and policies between all 50 states. "For each of the states every year, our accountants and lawyers on the Tax Committee research the taxability of aircraft ownership in that state," said NBAA Senior Manager of Finance and Tax Policy Scott O'Brien. "In the newly revised Report, we created a standard list of exemptions and evaluated them in each state. We also provide a link to the statute for exemptions in each state." Learn about this aviation tax resource.
- State Taxes Impacting Business Aviation – Could Your Aircraft Be Affected?
- May 9, 2011
State tax rules can be confusing even to tax attorneys or accountants, because the rules vary among the states, and business aircraft are operated in multiple states. Misconceptions abound regarding the applicability of taxes to aircraft operated for business, and there is no prohibition against "double taxation," so states can impose multiple taxes on aircraft. Leaders of NBAA's Tax Committee presented a webinar, "State Taxes Impacting Business Aviation," now available online. Learn more.
- California Fractional Tax Ruled Unconstitutional
- December 13, 2010
An Orange County Superior Court judge has ruled that California’s controversial fractional aircraft property tax law is unconstitutional. On November 30, Judge William Monroe held that the imposition of property tax on the managers of fractionally owned aircraft by California Senate Bill 87 (SB 87) is unconstitutional and unlawful. Learn more.
- Massachusetts Issues Directive on Taxation of Non-Resident Flightcrew Members
- May 5, 2008
The Massachusetts Department of Revenue has issued a directive regarding the personal income taxation of non-residents who are employed as flightcrew members on aircraft based in the state. While there is a federal limitation on state personal income taxation that applies to flightcrew members who perform services on air carrier flights, this limitation does not apply to flights conducted under Part 91. State employers operating aircraft under Part 91 are required to withhold taxes for non-resident flightcrew members. Review the directive.
- Update on Washington State Personal Property Tax Assessments
- April 30, 2007
NBAA has significant concerns regarding Washington State’s personal property tax regulation and has been working with local Members and the state to address those concerns. The State of Washington Department of Revenue (DOR) has taken the position that personal property tax is due on a percentage of the entire fleet of each Part 135 operator that flies into or out of Washington. The tax is based on the value of the fleet and apportioned based on the charter operator’s aircraft usage in Washington.