Very Light Jet Training Guidelines

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NBAA Training Guidelines for Single Pilot Operations of Very Light Jets and Technically Advanced Aircraft

3. Component Training Requirements

3.2. Pre-Training Study Package

Prior to arriving at a training facility, the candidate should become familiar with not only the specific aircraft on which they will train, but also all aspects of the new regime of flight they are about to undertake and ways in which they can operate safety. A pre-training study package is recommended to cover the following subject areas:

  • Manufacturer’s welcome to turbine-powered flight
    • New horizons
    • New challenges
    • New responsibilities
  • Manufacturer’s history and corporate mission
  • Aircraft specifications and mission capability
    • Range
    • Useful load
    • Runway required
    • Single-engine performance
    • Comparison to cabin-class turboprops
  • The meaning of pilot-in-command
    • Master of your fate
    • Knowledge is power
    • Nobody’s perfect
    • Learning never ends
    • Achieve immortality – set a good example
    • Becoming a captain
  • Professional aviator attitudes
    • Safety
    • Conservatism
    • Discipline
    • Currency
    • Responsibility
    • Decisions
    • Fatigue
    • Security
  • Armchair flight
    • Phase of flight review
    • Typical mission demonstration
  • FAR Parts 91 and 91 Subpart K (plus FAR Part 135 differences)
  • Airspace – definition and usage
  • Instrument procedures review
  • High-altitude physiology
  • High-altitude aerodynamics
    • Overspeeds
    • Underspeeds
    • Coffin corner
    • Wing loading
    • Straight wing vs. swept wing
  • Characteristics of high-speed aircraft
  • Operations in the high-speed regime
  • The VLJ and the ATC system
  • Flight planning resources
  • Weight and balance computations
  • Takeoff and landing performance charts
  • Pinch hitter and passenger briefing plans (define role for pinch hitter)
  • Communication
    • CTAF
    • Unicom
    • FBO
  • Introduction of tool kits
    • Fly/No fly
      • Personal health (including fatigue)
      • Weather
      • Time constraints
    • Go/No go
      • Rejected takeoff decision
      • Balanced field length awareness
    • Self-dispatching
      • Personal minimums checklist
    • Dealing with emergencies and abnormals
    • Performance
      • Contaminated runways
    • Briefings – self
      • Departure
      • Approach
    • Weather
      • Visibility
      • Wind
      • Turbulence
      • Icing
      • Convective activity
      • Clutter
  • Elements of a diversion
  • Aircraft systems overview
  • Radar/Weather datalink basics
  • Autoflight systems introduction
    • FMS
    • FGS
    • FMA
    • EFIS
    • AFIS/ACARS
    • Navigation sources (IRS/GPS/VOR)
    • TCAS
    • EGPWS
  • Standard operational procedure overview
  • CRM/SRM elements
    • Traditional
    • Single pilot differences
  • Advanced maneuvers
    • Upset recovery
    • Noise-abatement procedure
    • Slam-dunk arrivals
  • Windshear elements – avoidance and recovery
  • Wake turbulence – recognition and avoidance
  • Meteorology for jets
  • Mountain flying
  • RVSM
  • Maintenance
    • Minimum equipment list
    • Deferrals
    • Placards
    • Logbooks
    • Documentation
    • International issues
  • Accident/Safety training
    • Statistical review
    • Case studies
    • ALAR Tool Kit/CFIT Checklist
    • Threat/Error management
  • Runway incursion risks and airport signage
  • ATC phraseology
  • Collision avoidance
    • ADS-B
    • FIS
  • Review of practical test standard
  • Practical test expectations

3.2.1. Cockpit Resource Management/Single Pilot Resource Management

Cockpit resource management (CRM) principles apply to the pilot-in-command (PIC) of a personal jet or any other single pilot certified aircraft. This is called single pilot resource management (SRM) when applied to these types of operations. Pilots of these aircraft should be trained in, understand and apply CRM/SRM principles because accident/incident data has shown that CRM/SRM enhances the safety and efficiency of single pilot operations. Pilots, dispatchers, maintenance personnel and safety-related personnel should receive CRM/SRM training on an initial and recurrent basis in the following areas:

  • CRM/SRM Elements
    • Communication
    • Decision making
    • Situational awareness
    • Workload management
    • Resource management
  • CRM/SRM Scenario-Based Training
    • Domestic flight operations
    • International flight operations
    • Normal procedures
    • Emergency and abnormal procedures
  • Personality Grid Training
    • Personal management style recognition
    • Identification of personality extremes
    • Movement motivation toward norm
  • CRM/SRM Toolkits
    • Decision making model
    • Workload management model
    • Flight safety model
    • Self-briefing mechanisms
    • Personal limits model
  • Threat and Error Management
    • Red flags of overload
    • Red flags of weather encounters
    • Red flags of inexperience
    • Red flags of temporal pressure
    • Red flags of mission focus
    • Reversing adversity
  • Automation Management
    • Autoflight vs. manual flight philosophy
    • Flight management systems
    • EFIS displays and symbology
    • Autopilot modes
    • Flight mode annunciations
    • Flight guidance systems

Information on CRM/SRM can be found in:

  • FAA Advisory Circular 120-51C, Crew Resource Management Training
  • ICAO Circular Human Factors Digest No. 2, Flight Crew Training: Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) and Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT)
  • FAA/Industry Training Standards (FITS) Single Pilot Resource Management Guide
  • Ashgate Publishing (www.ashgate.com) for Aviation Psychology and CRM Publications

A CRM/SRM Pre- and Post-Training Program is recommended to contain the following:

CRM/SRM Training Guidelines Pre-Course Training Post-Course/LOFT
CRM/SRM ROLE Single Pilot Operations 1. CRM/SRM and safety
2. Professionalism
3. SOPs
4. Pilot-in-command
5. Precious cargo
6. Hostile environment
1. Threat/Error management
2. Advanced auto-flight
History of CRM/SRM 1. CRM/SRM beginnings
2. Five generations of CRM
3. Corporate
4. Airline
5. Military
1. LOFT role
2. IOE and CRM/SRM
CRM/SRM Elements 1. Communication
2. Decision making
3. Situational awareness
4. Workload management
5. Command
1. CRM/SRM toolkit
2. Decision making model
3. Automation as SIC
4. Technical toolkit
5. Regulatory requirements
Behavior Grid 1. Scenario review
2. CRM/SRM exercises
3. Situational awareness
1. LOFT CRM/SRM exercises
CRM/SRM Core Values 1. CRM/SRM definitions 1. Video CRM/SRM summary